Family As An agent Of Socialization
The importance of the FAMILY in the area of socialization cannot be over emphasize.
First and foremost, let us understand what the family is all about.
Family comprises of an adult male and female living together with any of their offspring.
The role of family as an agent of socialization and education of child depends on the nature of the family. Apart from creating and maintaining physical children, it also plays important roles in the education and socialization of a child, this teaches each child to be conform socially approved pattern of behaviour.
Area Of Child Socialization:-
(i) THE ANAL STAGE: These anal stages start from day one to one year where the child derives pleasure their mother. At this time, the mother is the most educators to the child. During the anal stage 1-3 years, toilet training and other habits for social life are taught to child.
(ii) THE PHALLIC STAGE: This stage is between 3-6 years. It is also period of Oedipus complex for boys and Electra complex for girls. Proper socialization a bed education is required to be given to the child by the family so that the child do not grow up to marry the mother or father as the case may be their later adult life. The puberty starts from 6years and above and there is development of sexual organ. Sex education should be provided because sexual socialization of the child sharpens the child attitudes toward the opposite sex.
One important consequence of school attendance is the shaping of attitudes towards the opposite sex and the children are socialized in their respective gender roles have prolonged opportunity for courtship.
The family pattern of socialization and education is through informal education which pays much attention to spiritual and moral values. The first group of the child’s teacher is the parents and members of the family which includes brothers, sisters, etc.
Prof. A. Fafunwa (1974) in his text, History of Education in Nigeria, “the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or a young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour which are positive value to the society in which he live”
This is to say that through education socialization there is cultural transmission in terms of continuity and growth and for dissemination of knowledge to ensure social control. This exercise starts from the home and then of the school.
Therefore, it could be seen that child’s socialization starts from the family and continues throughout life during the early childhood, the child interacts with other members of the family acquiring symbols, meaning and language learning is the product of socialization and education. Hence the social environment of home influence the personality development and status.
PERSONALITY FORMATION: According to Talcoh in his study of the principal functions of the nuclear family states “Human personality is not born, but it has to be made through socializing process. We could therefore enter from this statement that a basic role structure in the nuclear family promotes such socialization thus a child living in the shadow of the broken home is often surprised by coming and going and the mere fact that the essential relationship are not promoted.
It is then important that parents must contribute greatly for the growth, education and socialization of the child.
STATUS PLACEMENT: The ascribed social status acquired from one family through orientation persists for sometimes as each family will like to maintain their status for it is the social training gotten in the family orientation that foster a continuity of status when a family is established children from elites family will inspire to meet the standard set by their parents and their parents struggle to their children progress to meet up. Professor Sprote (1979) refers to the infant as a bundle of needs which arise out of inner tension.
The family is therefore, seen as agent of providing these needs which include maintaining psychological balance. The family plays an important roles in providing love and social interaction. It also involved internalization of norms for self-regulating and responsible participation in the society.
Emotional stability is one of the needs of a child. The family through its effective roles of socialization and education Provides to the child and it is very essential to an average behaved child.
P.W. Musgraue (1980) states that marriage as an institution provides the affection that helps to ensure the emotional stability needed.
A child in their early years needs security through proper socialization and education. It is efficiently provided to the child and where this is not provided to a child, the child becomes bad and delinquent.
The early stage of a child’s socialization and education provided at home needs a step further. The education would be taken as informal and this is provided by the family.
D.F. Swfit (1974) points out that the child will learn some pattern of behaviour perception of reality and habit thinking which are features of the social school environment and some which are special to his family.
A child is born in a home where he remains in the constant company of his mother and other in the formative years of his infancy. The impression and experience which a child have in his formative year leaves permanent and indelible impression on his mind and the parent as this shows love affection and cultural values to the child this striking specifically on the objective of traditional education that aims at cultural preservation.
E.B. Taylor (1980) defined culture as a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, customs and any other capabilities and habit acquired by man as a member of the society.
The emphases of socialization and education of the child by the family is centred on vocational training, also based on the fact that education is Job oriented, a child is trained in various vocation like farming, fishing etc.
The technical skill and knowledge which they acquire will then help them to be self-supporting and gainfully, employed and fine a place in the world of work.
Formal education is also offered to the child at school with adequate support and assistance from the family. The degree of education a child gets depends on educational opportunity available to the child. Some parents strive to send their children to school while others felt that money is more important.
The family has a number of roles both manifest and latent. The socialization of a child does not only depend on family alone but also on the environment.