Technical And Vocational Education In Nigeria
Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) has been an vital tool for national development strategies in many societies because of its impact on economic development.
Despite its potentials for National development, Nigeria is yet to have any meaningful contributions attributable to the TVE. And that is one of many reasons for the nation’s underdevelopment.
TVE is “education designed to develop basic occupational/professional skills.” Vocational and technical education helps in giving individuals the skills to “live, learn and work as a productive citizen in a global society.”
The provision of vocational and technical schools has a long history in Nigeria culminating in the TVE Master Plan of 2001.
The implementation and success rate of the Master Plan have been argued to range from 3-10%. This is because the plan is not only inconsistent but has an unrealistic expectation from the Federal Government. Therefore, there is need for up-to-date Action Plan for implementation of TVE in Nigeria.
The new plan must address the issues of how to better link TVE to the world of Work, entrepreneurship, teacher training as well as policies for the development of TVE
CASE FOR TVE
There are nearly 7m children in our secondary schools (33.9m are actually eligible). Compared to other fast growing economies, over 30% of their children in secondary schools are in TVE institutions. To attain this target about 2m Nigerian children need to be in Secondary TVE. At the tertiary level, Nigerian Institutions can only admit about 10% of its eligible applicants. Existing Government –owned Technical Colleges at present barely enroll 100,000 pupils (for accredited programmes).
Private TVE institutions engage many more, but in an informal unrecognised manner.
The Nigerian Labour Market Profile
Abundance of low quality unemployed and underemployed workers
• Recruitment of expatriates due to lack of local skills
• Excessive poaching of trained skilled staff from competition discourages high level training
• Employers have to give additional workplace training to reach minimal standards to work unsupervised
• Inability to meet up with the 60% local content stipulated by government in oil sector.
• Skills exist in silos and not as a pool (Common point for sourcing such skills do not exist).
Case for PPP
Governments at various levels have a unique obligation to provide basic education for all, but they cannot supply every human, financial or organisation requirement for this task.
The PPP model is a system that allows private sector participation in public sector affairs to bring about efficiency and effectiveness. This arrangement allows the private sector to be the drivers and operators of the institutions while the government acts as the enabler and regulator.
Model for PPP in TVE: (Real Issues)
The concept of partnerships is not new. Governance is all about partnerships. In the Nigerian Educational Sector and TVE in particular, partnerships exist but institutional linkages and inter-organizational relationships are weak. There is need for a practicable and institutionalized framework for PPPs.
This framework should cover investment incentives, Objectives performance measurement and reward system, simple and clear guidelines for engagement, licensing and accreditation as well as plans for advocacy/ awareness creation
It will be appropriate to introduce investment incentives given the enormity of challenges in the Nigerian Education sector and Nigerian business landscape in particular. Our approach proposes federal government Funding support in form of a Seed Grant of about 10% of total start up capital in each TVE Institution. Other incentives such as Tax concessions, Zero Tariff for TVE Imports, set up of TVE Intervention Fund etc are also needful.
The Seed Grant Mechanism will be used to build and equip 50 of the pilot TVE Institutions required to meet our goal. Private Investors will be required to demonstrate evidence of balance of funding prior to any disbursement in addition to other accreditation criteria.
Vocational Institutes Target Group: Age: 15
The Vocational Training is to cover most subjects that will prepare students for jobs in most industries including construction, beauty, hospitality, music, travel and would provide ground work for career in a range of area. These Institutions will not be listed in the University Admission Brochure as they are to admit students who have completed the Junior Secondary School and obtained the Basic Education School leaving certificate. Their students may proceed after this to the next level which is the Innovation Enterprise Institutes
Technical Institutes: Target Group: Age: 20
The primary Role of these TEI is to ensure that its graduates have the technical knowledge and skills that are relevant to specific Industries such as: The Fashion Institute of Technology; The School of Hospitality and Tourism; The Film Academy; The Paralegal School; Institute of welding and fabrication, Sports academy etc. These Institutions will be included in the University Admission brochure and students who have completed their Senior Secondary School and obtained at least credits in 5 subjects are qualified to apply for entry into these institutions.
Criteria for Accreditation
A properly laid out business plan describing the business concept, vision, mission, profiles and experience of promoters and management team, target market, financial structure including evidence of start-up capital, operational plan, key risks and mitigants, preferred location and any other information that will be useful in assessing the viability of the proposed institution
In addition the following should be included in the proposal; Proposed Curriculum demonstrating innovation and link with market economy, Number and list of full-time & part-time qualified instructors, Information on learning environment, and other learning facilities, Systems & structures for measuring impact etc
Procedure for Registering Private Providers
· Advertise Expression of Interest in three National Newspapers
· Fill standardized application form expressing interest
· The founder will be asked to submit a properly laid out business plan
· Successful founders will be selected for each industry/focus area
· Having satisfied all this criteria, the founder will be accredited and can begin to enroll students
Monitoring of Private Providers
Start-up grant (Seed grant) will be disbursed in installments over a 6-month period; disbursement will be linked to the achievement of key milestones.
Minimum entry requirement required for admission will be defined by the Tertiary Education Commission, while student certification shall be done by the respective Institutions. The Tertiary Commission will also be responsible for performance assessment, Efficiency of resource utilization (because of Government investment), Sustainability of the project after the completion of funding, annual enrollment numbers to ensure it meets standards, Number of students that completed course at centres and got jobs, level of job skills training at Institutions etc.